# 我国第一台半导体大型体计算机

1961年

## 发展要素

50年风雨之后，为了寻求ICT的融合和计算领域的更大发展，中国正在积极酝酿更好的政策环境。2006年8月29日，全国信息产业科技创新会议在京召开。

1956年3月，由闵乃大教授、胡世华教授、徐献瑜教授、张效祥教授、吴几康副研究员和北大的党政人员组成代表团，参加了在莫斯科主办的“计算技术发展道路”国际会议，到前苏联“取经”，为我国制定12年规划的计算机部分做技术准备。当时的代表团主要成员后来都参加了12年规划。此外，范新弼、夏培肃和蒋士飞也加入规划制定中。在随后制定的12年规划中，确定了中国要研制计算机，并批准中国科学院成立计算技术、半导体、电子学及自动化等四个研究所。

## 发展历程

1958年～1962年期间，中国人民解放军总参谋部也前后独立研制成功了一些自行设计、全部国产化的计算机。
1964年，中科院计算技术研究所吴几康、范新弼领导的自行设计119机（通用浮点44二进制位、每秒 5万次）也交付使用，这是中国第一台自行设计的电子管大型通用计算机，也是当时世界上最快的电子管计算机。当时美国等发达国家已经转入晶体管计算机领域，119机虽不能说明中国具有极高水平，但是仍然能表明，中国有能力实现“外国有的，中国要有；外国没有的，中国也要有”这个伟大目标。

1973年3月，在全国实际研制目标200～500万次不能满足中国飞行体设计的计算流体力学需要的情形下，时任国防科委副主任的钱学森，根据飞行体设计需要，要求中科院计算所在20世纪70年代研制一亿次高性能巨型机，80年代完成十亿次和百亿次高性能巨型机，并且指出必须考虑并行计算道路。中科院计算所根据国防情报所和计算所情报室提供的国际上的公开资料，分析了1970年前后美国研制的高性能巨型机的优缺点之后，于1973年5月提出“全部器件国产化一亿次高性能巨型机（20M低功耗ECL、电路-四条流水线）及其模型机（757向量计算机、10M ECL、电路-单条流水线）”的可行方案。由于文革中受到严重干扰，以及文革后“走马灯”式良莠不齐的领导乱指挥，尽管在1979年，由亚城负责的20M低功耗ECL电路的集成电路芯片投片已经研发成功，但是最终“全部器件国产化一亿次高性能巨型机”的研发，因为任务变化，最终搁浅。

20世纪70年代后期以后，中国研制的计算机，几乎全部使用进口元器件、进口部件。

“元器件全部进口化”导致的结果是，不仅全部国产化的亿次高性能巨型机研制中止，而且真正完全自主的国产的计算机集成电路研制工作也中断，至今也没有恢复，甚至没有任何恢复的迹象，这两方面对国家安全都很不利。实际上，“集成电路生产线大三角形”依靠进口的集成电路生产线，就等于依赖外国集成电路生产线水平和外国政府批准向中国出口的集成电路生产线的水平。引进无法达到最先进，而且在特殊情况下，引进很可能中断，引进的生产线的备份件也不能得到更新。
“中国芯”何时真正崛起

## 关于中国计算机和互联网产业的观察和想法

The Great Firewall was one of China’s most forward looking policies and resulted in the development of an entire ecosystem of domestic internet companies found basically nowhere else. The idea that it’s removal would be fighting the global misinformation war on equal footing is patently absurd because the majority of Western media companies are de-facto US government owned organizations which has total gate keeper control over who goes in to the system. In addition, requiring that the Chinese fight misinformation in English is again a non-starter simply because language proficiency issues means that any kind of argument conducted in English would immediately disadvantage the Chinese. This is akin to demanding a 12 year old fight a 24 year old boxer in a “fair fight”. The fairness being only in the confrontation and disregarding the base levels at play. If the Western liberasts had any balls, they would challenge the Chinese on Zhihu and Douban, but a tiny insignificant China hands capable of doing so inevitably end up running for the hills, being regularly out trolled by the native speakers or just as quickly get banned. There is nothing stopping Westerners from going inside the firewall to debate the Chinese, they are unable to do so, so they instead demand that the Chinese surrender the high ground and volunteer themselves to be surrounded. In addition, it is plain as day that the ostensible freedoms of Western social media are rapidly vanishing under a tide of government misinformation, corporate compliant shadow bans, “ngo” bot campaigns, algorithmic tweaking, search obscuration, etc all designed to reinforce a status quo that the Western states momentarily lost control of due to the internet originally bypassing the traditional gate keeping networks that keeps all mass media organizations playing the same tune. The reason that Tik Tok is going to be banned in the US has nothing to do with security nor reciprocity, it is simply because it isn’t a US government controlled media company, thus the tools it has in it’s arsenal for “curating” the consensus are not under US government control. This is it’s biggest crime.

## 内容推荐，协同过滤

https://www.cnblogs.com/NeilZhang/p/9900537.html

https://blog.csdn.net/nicajonh/article/details/79657317

https://blog.csdn.net/hlang8160/article/details/81433356

https://www.cnblogs.com/guoyaohua/p/9240336.html

$tf(t,d) = \frac{n_t}{\sum_k n_k}$.

$n_t$是词t的出现次数，分母的和显然是文档里的词数。

tf idf可以用于做分类。

## Duke of Qin on the Great Firewall of China

The Great Firewall was one of China’s most forward looking policies and resulted in the development of an entire ecosystem of domestic internet companies found basically nowhere else. The idea that it’s removal would be fighting the global misinformation war on equal footing is patently absurd because the majority of Western media companies are de-facto US government owned organizations which has total gate keeper control over who goes in to the system. In addition, requiring that the Chinese fight misinformation in English is again a non-starter simply because language proficiency issues means that any kind of argument conducted in English would immediately disadvantage the Chinese. This is akin to demanding a 12 year old fight a 24 year old boxer in a “fair fight”. The fairness being only in the confrontation and disregarding the base levels at play. If the Western liberasts had any balls, they would challenge the Chinese on Zhihu and Douban, but a tiny insignificant China hands capable of doing so inevitably end up running for the hills, being regularly out trolled by the native speakers or just as quickly get banned. There is nothing stopping Westerners from going inside the firewall to debate the Chinese, they are unable to do so, so they instead demand that the Chinese surrender the high ground and volunteer themselves to be surrounded. In addition, it is plain as day that the ostensible freedoms of Western social media are rapidly vanishing under a tide of government misinformation, corporate compliant shadow bans, “ngo” bot campaigns, algorithmic tweaking, search obscuration, etc all designed to reinforce a status quo that the Western states momentarily lost control of due to the internet originally bypassing the traditional gate keeping networks that keeps all mass media organizations playing the same tune. The reason that Tik Tok is going to be banned in the US has nothing to do with security nor reciprocity, it is simply because it isn’t a US government controlled media company, thus the tools it has in it’s arsenal for “curating” the consensus are not under US government control. This is it’s biggest crime.

По-русски через Яндекса переводчика

Великий Брандмауэр был одним из самых передовых стратегий Китай смотрит и привело к созданию целой экосистемы отечественных интернет-компаний найдено в принципе нигде. Идея о том, что это удаление будет бороться с глобальной дезинформации войны на равных условиях, является абсурдной, поскольку большинство западных медиа-компаний де-факто нам государственных организаций общего управления воротами хранитель, который идет в систему. Кроме того, требование, что китайская борьба дезу на английском языке снова за бортом просто потому, что вопросы владения английским языком означает, что любой аргумент проводиться на английском будет сразу минус китайцы. Это сродни требуя 12-летний бой 24-летнего боксера в “честном бою”. Справедливость только в противостояние и игнорирование базовых уровней в игре. Если западные liberasts было никаких шаров, они будут конкурировать с китайцами на Zhihu и Foursquare, но совсем незначительные Китай руками способен сделать так неизбежно в конечном итоге работает на холмах, регулярно из тролем с носителями языка или просто как быстро банили. Ничто не мешает западникам от идти внутри брандмауэра для обсуждения китайцев, они не в состоянии сделать это, так они вместо того чтобы требовать, что китайцы сдала высоту и добровольно себя окружать. Кроме того, это ясно как день, что якобы свобод западных социальных медиа стремительно исчезая под волной дезинформации правительства, корпоративных уступчивый тень запреты, “НПО” СЭП кампаний, алгоритмической Настройки, Поиск обскурации и т. д. Все это призвано укрепить статус-кво, что западные государства, на мгновение потерял управление из-за интернета изначально минуя традиционные ворота учета сетей, который держит все СМИ играют одну и ту же мелодию. Той причине, что тик ток будет запрещено в США не имеет ничего общего с охраной, ни взаимности, это просто потому, что это не правительство США, СМИ, контролируемые компанией, таким образом средства она имеет в своем арсенале для “курирования” консенсус не под контролем правительства. Это большое преступление это.

## “Not our Job” (yellow people as untouchable caste in America)

Somebody is asking me to publish the following on here.

Asians have been in America for a long time, but to what avail? We build railroads and cities, and we get the Chinese Exclusion Act. We churn out Jeremy Lins and Jonny Kims, and we get “A Chink in the Armor.” We apply for universities like everyone else, and we get turned down because we’re not “holistic” enough. It’s been like that since the beginning — we play the game, and the goalposts get changed once it looks like we’re winning. Have we achieved the American Dream, or is there a reason it’s called a “dream?” Have we gotten what we want? Centuries of our collective life experiences should tell us no, we haven’t gotten what we want. But what do we want? Perhaps the problem is we never really thought about this.

The truth is, we’re all humans and humans want the same things. These things have been carefully studied throughout history and codified by countries around the world. And the truth is, the most basic rights and opportunities as a human being, let alone an American citizen, are denied to us. These rights and opportunities are written in the American Constitution. Remember “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?” How hollow those words ring nowadays. The fact these principles do not hold true for us, means America is no longer the America of the Constitution. America has failed us. To continue our lives here means accepting the fact that we live in a failed state. Or maybe we believe that whatever life we have here is not a failure. That’s what the slaves thought, too, until they didn’t; they believed were still alive and doing just fine, despite the circumstances.

Now look. What do we have here, really? What can America do for us? We are immigrants who came here to have a higher standard of living. Mostly, that means money, purchasing power, presence on the world stage. The allure of that six-figure job which puts you at the top one percentile of income globally — it is something basic human nature finds difficult to resist. We have comfortable houses and nice cars and endless food and the luxury to travel around the world whenever we want. But of course that’s just a minority of people. Most of us don’t have even that, which means most of us have nothing. We also came here for political and religious and sexual freedom, only to find it disgustingly superficial, unrealistic to the point of impossibility, and quite irrelevant in practice. You can thank the media for such merry delusions.

And even if we did have a higher standard of living here than back home, it doesn’t make a huge difference materially. Humans are hardy creatures. We can deal with — and have dealt with — poverty just fine. More important, however, is the need for respect and understanding. Think for a moment, do we expect respect and understanding from the birthplace of the Chinese Exclusion Act, the nuclear holocausts of Japan, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the total annihiliation of Cambodia as well as other countries? But things have changed, you say. That’s all in the past. On the surface, it looks that way. That’s because they want it to look that way. They want us to keep on living here, stimulating the economy, paying the taxes, and being a good example for other minorities to follow. But they don’t want us to realize how angry and dissatisfied we are. They don’t want us breaking the rules or trying to change things for the better — because that’s a job for the adults.

Though we are American citizens, it’s not our job to change America. Asians have this curious personality trait, where we all want to be the hero who saves the day. We want to speak up, we want to change things. But time and time again, whenever we do something substantive they will nod politely and say, “oh, that’s nice, dear.” And then we’re left to play sidekick to someone who truly is a first-class citizen. So it’s not our job to change America, not because we can’t, but because it’s been decided for us that we shouldn’t. It’s plain to see that America is being mismanaged on multiple fronts. That’s normal, of course — a country as large as America is bound to have a lot of interesting problems to solve. And we’re always trying to be the hero. Trying to redeem America, trying to find the one shred of hope amidst all the debris. But that’s not our job.

## How did Stanford physics professor (and also venture capitalist) Shoucheng Zhang actually die? Who might be next?

Last December, on the same day that Huawei CFO Meng Wanzhou was detained, Stanford physics professor Shoucheng Zhang suddenly died at age 55, and media reported it as “after a battle with depression.” I was told that his VC firm, with assets in the hundred of millions of dollars, failed after the price of bitcoin/blockchain, which accounted for maybe 80% of its portfolio, sank precipitously. This year, somebody else also told me that the FBI killed him. I believe some sources online revealed there was some FBI 301 investigation against his Danhua Capital. It’s pretty much impossible to know for sure for those of us without insider information.

I will be a bit harsh here and say that for him to think that he could, while keeping his tenured position in Stanford physics department, also start a VC firm for Chinese in Silicon Valley as a naturalized American citizen mainland Chinese immigrant and not eventually get screwed over is a bit naive. He should have kept out of the business world and just stuck to his physics in academia. I think even had he not died young, he, who had been nominated for Nobel, would not have received it ever after his Danhua Capital got more publicity. It’s not really what a physicist should be doing.

I’ve seen more stuff lately on profiling of ethnic Chinese scientists and engineers in America. As harsh as it might be, I think it is kind of naive for those immigrants to actually expect true fairness in America. I remember when that Temple University physicist Xi Xiaoxing was featured on the news, he said something like

Because I’m an American.

After seeing that, I couldn’t help but think

Is he actually that stupid, or is he just pretending to be stupid.

He didn’t even receive his physics PhD in America for god’s sake, he got it from Beijing University in 1987, he spent his first almost 30 years in China, after which he went abroad, and after the Tiananmen Square Incident, he got his green card in America and promptly became citizen. In the eyes of China, he is a traitor.

I am aghast at how naive and also unethical how some of these STEM immigrants from mainland China are, of my parents’ generation. Like, lately, I learned of this company called Moqi Inc based in Beijing that’s creating fingerprint recognition technology for Chinese police department. It’s being funded by a US venture capital firm and on the board of directors is Princeton computer science professor Kai Li, who had in America co-founded a computer storage company Data Domain that was acquired for $2.4 billion. I’m guessing Kai Li helped the two young founders with Princeton doctorates get funding from that American VC firm called NEA. How is this unethical? This is a guy who is a naturalized American citizen, who had swore an oath to America after the Chinese government sent him to do a PhD at Yale in 1981. The details were publicized here: https://www.intelligenceonline.com/surveillance–interception/2019/12/03/moqi-spearheads-beijing-s-biometrics-technology-transfer,108384647-art. (the link is broken, but the cache still remains when searching on Bing) Text below: Moqi, spearheads Beijing’s biometrics technology transfer With the help of the Chinese Ministry of Public Security (MPS), Moqi is bidding to become a global company of reference in fingerprint analysis thanks to its record-breaking software. The Chinese startup Moqi unveiled its fingerprint analysis software FingerID at the Milipol law enforcement and security trade fare in Paris in November. After winning several contracts with the Chinese authorities, the firm founded by former Princeton University students is looking to make its mark on the export market. Developed in close collaboration with the 3rd research institute of the Ministry of Public Security, or Gonganbu, FingerID is already deployed in the government’s Golden Shield network, used by the police. Its deployment has led to the development of a huge centralised nationwide fingerprint database. Thanks to hosting its software in the cloud, Moqi boasts that it can compare a set of fingerprints to a database of 2 billion digitalised fingerprints in a matter of seconds. Based on computer vision algorithms, the programme is optimised to recognise and digitalise fingerprints from photographs. A mobile application provided to Chinese police officers ensures that an individual’s fingerprints can be taken without the need for special equipment. Moqi also sells a contactless fingerprint reading device whose optical sensors take 3D pictures. In Europe, Moqi is seeking commercial partnerships to help it win the confidence of leading companies working in biometric technology. Moqi is offering to provide companies with a compatible application programming interface (API) to speed up the integration of its algorithms in the main systems that are available on the market. Suppliers Moqi Beijing. Housed at the Zhongguancun innovation centre, Moqi is headed by mathematician Cheng Tai, who, like the firm’s technical director Linpeng Tang, attended Princeton University. Moqi’s board includes two Princeton professors, computer specialist Kai Li and mathematician Weinan E. Former Amazon engineer Qingdi Zhang has overseen the development of the FingerID cloud-based software. Incubated from 2016 by the Beijing Institute of Big Data Research (BIBDR) at the University of Beijing, the startup is backed by the Chinese venture capital firm GSR Ventures and the Maryland-based investment company New Enterprise Associates (NEA). These people have no loyalty, none to China, none to America. They’re mostly spineless opportunists. And very greedy, you could say in a short-sighted way. This Kai Li not only became Princeton professor, he probably has a net worth of over$100 million too, he got so much from America. And now he’s serving a company in China with direct ties to “Ministry of Public Security” and “Golden Shield Project” (that’s the Chinese firewall) as an American citizen.

More evidence from their webpage: https://moqi.ai/about-us.

From their English version site: https://fingerid.ai/about-us.

## Initial Team

Cheng Tai
CEO & Co-founder
Ph.D. | Princeton U
Linpeng Tang
CTO & Co-founder
Ph.D. | Princeton U
Weinan E
Co-founder
Ph.D. | Professor in Princeton U | Member of CAS
Kai Li
Board Member
Ph.D. | Professor in Princeton U | Member of NAE
Qin Liu
Senior Software Engineer
Ph.D. | Chinese U Hong Kong
Qingdi Zhang
Senior Software Engineer
M.S. | U Penn

As you can see, there’s a photo of American Kai Li on there, along with Weinan E another Chinese immigrant Princeton professor, though quite different from Kai, it seems like Weinan is still a Chinese citizen, so his taking part in this is actually somewhat more acceptable.

By the way, having been in China for a while now, I’ve realized that the Chinese in China are very different from those who opt to go to America. I won’t elaborate on that for now. I just hope that Americans realize that the Chinese they encounter in America are a political extremity of the Chinese population. Even the normal Chinese in China increasingly don’t want to be associated with them or even despise them, let alone white Americans.

More press releases about the company in English

## 一个留美者尽然说中国的一个广东省就能顶一个俄罗斯，搞笑！

 哪里啊，俄罗斯早就被中国赶超了，现在就连一个广东省都能顶一个俄罗斯。

 客观数字就是那么显示啊。

## 更多关于留美华人科学家的一些想法和观察

In America, nobody cares about an educated yellow man.

• 那么爱国，为什么还非要依赖一个敌对国家的教育和大学呢。
• 没有意识到一个中国学生跑到美国学习工作由于国家和民族和语言背景自然是很吃亏的么？
• 没有意识到跑到美国留学就代表认可美国的学校，机构和价值观么？
• 没有想花很多钱或功夫，去了美国，学到一些在中国就可以学到的，不是很不划算么，不是代表个人热爱美国，支持美国么？
• 没有意识到学校的东西好多都是书本上的知识，不需要非跑到美国就能学到么？
• 没有意识到美国真正的尖端的科技能接触到的可能性其实是极小的么，作为一个来自中国的人，而相反美国的机构大多是希望赚你的钱，获得利用你的劳动力做一些相对普通的工程工作或者试错性的研究么？